Research department

SWAP Research Department

groupSince March 2007 SWAP’s research department has been engaged in various studies and researches on public health in collaboration with CDC- Atlanta amongst other partners. The researches have been conducted in various counties of Western Kenya. The main aim of the research department has been to evaluate the health and economic impact of SWAP’s interventions. The department has an efficient pool of researchers that have technical expertise and experience in conducting baselines, surveillance and feasibility studies. Through partnership and collaboration with various organizations SWAP has presented research findings in various international conferences, journals and publications. These findings have been instrumental in informing policies and implementation models world wide. Internally, the research department has been instrumental in modeling of implementation and evaluation of intervention impact. Research findings have been disseminated to the SWAP staff and the beneficiary communities through a community feedback mechanism and thus SWAP projects and interventions have been continuously adjusted to keep up with the changing trends and community needs. SWAP now outsources its research activities to various partners.

SWAP has an internal research Lab where field samples particularly house hold water samples can be analyzed for different surveillance studies. The lab acts as quality assurance center for different studies where samples that need to be analyzed at various CDC/Kemri Laboratories are first checked and coded. SWAP Lab has capacity to analyze 90 water samples in different house hold and more in one day using IDEXX Quanti-Tray and membrane method. The Quanti-Tray/2000 provides easy, rapid and accurate counts of coliforms, E. coli and enterococci. The IDEXX Quanti-Tray and Quanti-Tray/2000 are semi-automated quantification methods based on the Standard Methods Most Probable Number (MPN) model. Total hands-on time is less than one minute per test. Quanti-Tray® & Quanti-Tray®/2000 are easy, rapid and accurate. SWAP can also conduct membrane technology for bacteria identification, measure turbidity, Ph and TDS for water samples. SWAP is in the process of accreditation of the lab and will outsource this service to other partners and organization.



We completed water filter study in 76 households in Nyando Sub County (Waswa and Achego scheme villages) in April 2016 together with the visiting Principal Investigator from Tufts University, Anna Murray

This was a partnership between SWAP, PATH and Tufts University’s School of Engineering

The final report was disseminated in November 21, 2016.


Second diaper study with Procter & Gamble Germany done in Kisumu and targeted 76 mothers with size 3 & 4 diapers. Diaper application study was done at a central place and in households. It was a short one month study that tested different brands of diapers and mothers determined their preference.



A partnership consortium between SWAP, Liverpool school of Tropical Medicine, CDC, KEMRI & Government of Kenya’s Ministries of Education and Health

The title of the study is; “ Menstrual cups and cash transfer to reduce sexual and reproductive harm and school drop-out in adolescent schoolgirls in Siaya County: a cluster randomized controlled trial”

84 day secondary schools will be randomized and 3,800 girls in Form 2 will be the study participants.

There will be 4 study arms– 1 moon-cups, 2 moon-cups and cash, 3 cash and 4 comparison

All approvals by Ethical Review Committee at LSTM, CDC, KEMRI, KPPB & MOE have been issued.

5 Trial Management Group meetings were held and attended by SWAP.

Sensitization meeting with 75 Principals of the targeted secondary schools held and obtained consent from 75 schools. 2016 was a year of preparations and getting approval. Most activities will start in January 2017.


A cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the role of conditional cash transfers in retaining rural Kenyan women in the continuum of care during pregnancy, birth and the postnatal period.

The intervention being tested is a conditional cash transfer to women each time they attend their health appointments for ANC (up to 4 visits), facility birth and postnatal care visits until their new-borns reach 1 year of age (up to 6 visits)

Collaboration between SWAP, Stockholm Environment Institute, Nailab and Ministry of Health. The study is funded by Bill and Melinda Gates and is a follow up of a successful pilot.  Delays experienced with start-up and now activities will start in  January 2017.


A partnership study between PATH, SWAP and the Ministry of Health

Beta prototype gadget which generates 1% chlorine solution at least 3 litres per hour.

Tested in Homa Bay, Ndhiwa, Ahero and Siaya Hospitals

SWAP’s water lab was used to test water sources at drinking and hand wash stations to assess bacterial contamination. One SE Flow device was left at Ndhiwa Sub County Hospital for continued use.

A follow up study of an improved version will be done in 2017.


A partnership between CARE, CDC , SWAP, MOH and MOE

CARE Kenya conducted an organizational assessment before the grant was awarded to carry out the study in Siaya County. The Study was done in 30 randomly selected schools and 30 health care facilities. Drinking water and hand washing stations were observed including presence of chlorine.

The water lab was used to test source and stored water samples for bacteriological analyses.

CDC Atlanta provided technical support during the clinic surveys.


A collaborative initiative between SWAP, KEMRI, CDC and the Ministry of Education.

Notification of the award was made in October but the funds are yet to be received.

The study will involve testing urine and stool samples for Schistosomiasis Mansoni among primary school going children in Siaya County along the shores of Lake Victoria.

SWAP begun renovating the Urine and Stool Lab

The study team will be hosted by SWAP including the PI, 4 lab technicians and a study coordinator.

SWAP’s study supervisors and Data Manager will be engaged during this study.